Call Us @ +91-7020626059

DETERMINATION OF FLUORIDE CONTENT IN DIFFERENT GROUND WATER

HTML Full text

DETERMINATION OF FLUORIDE CONTENT IN DIFFERENT  GROUND WATER

Geeta Lodhi*2, Sagar Trivedi1, Kamlesh Wadher1, Chandrashekhar Doifode2

1Department Of Pharmaceutics SKB College of Pharmacy Kamptee Nagpur India 441002

2Taywade College of Pharmacy Koradi Nagpur India 441001


ARTICLE INFO

Date of Submission: 16 June, 2018
Date of Revision: 16 July, 2018
Date of Acceptance:23 July, 2018

*Corresponding Author:
Email ID: msgeetal@rediffmail.com

KEYWORD
Fluoride , different samples, water fluoride content.

ABSTRACT

This project deals with determining the fluoride on different ground water sample. In this broadside analysis of different ground water was tested for content of fluoride ions in bottled mineral water significantly differs from values given on declaration, and that content of fluoride ions varies over a period of time. The content of fluoride ions in water from ground water in Nagpur and Bhandara districts at the time of analysis was significantly increased and exceeded values given in Regulation for drinking water quality. The received results from the analysis of fluorides in teas show that fluorides exist in teas in different concentrations.
It may due to the presence of different types of fluoride bearing minerals with different solubility. Considering WHO safe limit 0.5 ppm or mg/L of fluoride in drinking water, nearly 82% of the tested waters are contained injurious concentration of fluoride for drinking water purposes limit 0.5 ppm or mg/L of fluoride in drinking water, nearly 82% of the tested waters are contained injurious concentration of fluoride for drinking water purposes. A safe limit of 0.5 ppm or mg/L of fluoride has been proposed for all types of crop plants. Also the Unsafe condition limit was 2.0 ppm or mg/ltr and Alert limit 1.0 ppm or mg/ltr .


1. INTRODUCTION

Fluoride is a naturally occurring compound derived from fluorine, it is present naturally in almost all foods and beverages including water, but levels of which can vary widely. Fluoridation is the addition of fluoride compounds into drinking water, to adjust concentrations to levels between 0.8 and 1.0 mg/Lt for the beneficial effect of tooth decay prevention. The fluoride accumulation of ground water varies according to the source of water, geological formulation of the area and amount of rain fall etc1.
Traces of fluorides are present in many waters, higher concentrations are often associated with underground sources which in turn vary with the type of rock the water flows through. Low concentrations (0.6-1.5mg/lt) provide protection against dental caries, especially in children. Fluoride can also have an adverse effect on tooth enamel and may give rise to mild dental Fluorosis. In India, approximately 62 million people including 6 million children suffer from fluorosis because of high consumption of high Fluoride content. Longer exposure to Fluoride leads to certain types of bone diseases.Fluoridated water has fluoride at a level that is effective for preventing cavities; this can occur naturally or by adding fluoride 2.
Fluoridated water works on tooth surfaces: in the mouth it creates low levels of fluoride in saliva, which reduces the rate at which tooth enamel demineralizes and increases the rate at which it remineralizes in the early stages of cavities.5.
The compounds are potentially serious contaminants not only when present in highly localized, massive concentrations, but also when distributed in low- level amounts over a long period of time. Fluoride intake has always been considered a key factor for prevention of dental caries and improvement of public dental health. Fluoride makes the tooth-enamel surface acid resistant by preventing bacterial demineralization and promotes remineralization of initial non-cavitated carious lesions. It also shows antimicrobial activity; in low concentrations it prevents bacterial adhesion to tooth structure while in high concentration the fluoride ion is highly toxic to certain oral microorganisms.
The main source of systemic fluoride in children is from drinking water ( tap + bottled), carbonated beverages and other juice drinks.
Worldwide, vast majority of consumers that include children are replacing their daily water intake by bottled water, probably attributed to the fear of less purity of natural water supply and the presence of contaminants such as micro-organisms or sand particles.

2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

1. Keep the standard Fluoride Colour Chart in the Chart Holder.
2. Collect the water sample to be tested in breaker.
3. Take one tube, rinse it well with sample water fill it up to mark (4 ml)
4. Now add drop-by- drop Fluoride Reagent Solution till it reached to the upper marking, which is 5 ml & mix well.
5. Colour will be developed instantly. Keep the test tube in the slot provided on the chart holder.
6. Compared the developed colour with that of standard on the chart. Colour which matches or nearly matches with the developed colour is the reading for Fluoride concentration in ppm or mg/lt present in the water sample.

3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The distribution of the groundwater samples containing different amounts of fluoride showed in fluoride testing table 1.The fluoride concentration was ranged from 0.0—.0 ppm or mg/L with highest fluoride level at Tumsar Lake (2.0 ppm or mg/L) and lowest at pipla and other location (Koradi, Saoner, Hingna,, Mahadulla, Dattawadi, Mitewani, Xtreame (Bottle Water),And Pyramid (bottle Water).
In terms of distribution, the fluoride level Higher than 1.0 ppm or mg/L was observed the condition as Alert at two locations (Tumsar (ground water) and Koradi (ground water)), between 1 and 1.5 ppm or mg/L and the fluoride level greater than2.0 ppm or mg/L is observed as one location (Tumsar Lake Water). It was 81.97% are safe water found while result.
In addition, 15 samples testing the fluoride range between 0.0 —2.0 ppm was found (Table 1). The ground water samples from the Tumsar Lake (0.0-2.0 ppm) and Koradi (0.0-1.5), having very high fluoride content. From above observation Tumsar ( ground water ) was found to be (0.0-1.0 ) ppm or mg/L and Hajaripahad, Barujwada & TCOP was found to be (0.0-0.5) ppm or mg/L. The Lowest fluoride concentration was found to be range from (0.0-0.0) ppm or mg/L are Hingna, Mahadulla, Dattawadi, Pipla, Saoner, Xtreme(bottle water) and Pyramid (Bottle water).
The fluoride concentration was ranged from 0.0 —.0 ppm or mg/L with highest fluoride level at Tumsar Lake (2.0 ppm or mg/L) and lowest at pipla, Dattawadi, Mahadulla, Hingna, Soner, Xtreme (Bottle water) (0.0 ppm or mg/L) in safe condition, TCOP pharmacy,  Burijwada, and Hajaripahad (0.5 ppm) in terms of safe condition. In terms of distribution, the fluoride level lower than 1.0 ppm or mg/L was observed the condition as Alert two locations (Tumsar ground water) & Koradi ground water between 1 and 1.5 ppm or mg/L.

Figure 1: Standard Colour Chart

Table 1: Distribution of Fluoride in Ground Water samples

SR

WATER SAMPLE CODE CONDITION RESULT
 1

KORADI COLONY

S1 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 2

SAONER

S2 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 3

HINGNA

S3 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 4

MAHADULA

S4 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 5

DATTAWADI

S5 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 6

MITEWANI

S6 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 7

PIPLA

S7 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 8

XTREME (BOTTLE WATER)

S8 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 9

PYRAMIDE (BOTTLE WATER)

S9 SAFE

0.0 PPM

 10

TCOP PHARMACY

S10

SAFE

0.5 PPM

 11

BURIJWADA

S11

SAFE

0.5 PPM

 12

HAJARI PAHAD

S12

SAFE

0.5 PPM

 13

TUMSAR (GROUND WATER)

S13

ALERT

1.0 PPM

 14

KORADI (GROUND WATER)

S14

ALERT

1.5 PPM

 15 TUMSAR (LAKE WATER) S15 UNSAFE

2.0 PPM

It was 81.97% are safe while result. The obtained results show the reliability of the method by determining fluorides in drinking water in most samples. Lack of referential value (in bottled waters) refers to the fact that manufacturer has to analyses water that is put on the market regularly, because significant deviations from measured values, which are given and/or are not given on declaration are noticed.

Figure 2: Distribution of Fluoride in Ground Water samples

4.0 ANALYSIS :

From   the   experimental   analysis,   the   concentration   of   fluoride   does   not correlated  with  other  chemical  characteristics  of  the  groundwater  most  probably.  It may due to the presence of different types of fluoride bearing minerals with different solubility. Considering WHO safe limit 0.5 ppm or mg/L of fluoride in drinking water, nearly 82% of the tested waters are contained injurious concentration of fluoride for drinking water purposes limit 0.5 ppm or mg/L of fluoride in drinking water, nearly 82% of the tested waters are contained injurious concentration of fluoride for drinking water purposes. A safe limit of 0.5 ppm or mg/L of fluoride has been proposed for all types of crop plants. Also the Unsafe condition limit was 2.0 ppm or mg/ltr and Alert limit 1.0 ppm or mg/ltr while experimental and result analysis. Our data suggest that almost all waters tested can utilize for irrigation. Only the waters at eleven locations can use for drinking

5.0 CONCLUSION :

The concentration  of  fluoride  in  all  water samples  must  not  exceed  the  limit decided  by  WHO.  However,  there  are  great  variations  in  concentration  of  fluoride among  different  analyzed  water  samples.  It  is  observed  form  the  above  study  that fluoride  content  in  certain  areas  was  found  above  the  levels  than  required.  Since drinking  water  is  a  basic  need,  the  people  in  those  areas  should  consume  protected water containing fluoride within the  prescribed  limits in order  to  prevent dental  and skeletal Fluorosis for the future generation.

6.0 CONCLUSION :

1.Carlsson c, dewey J , ”environmental pollution by fluorides in flathead national forest and glacier national park,” usda, u.s. forest service, missoula, montana, 1971.

2.Cohen h, locker d. The science and ethics of water fluoridation. J can dent assoc. 2001;67(10):578—.

3.Dewey j, ”accumulation of fluorides in insects near an emission source in western montana,” environ. Entom.1973 2:179-182.

4.Hill, a.c., ”air quality standards for fluoride vegetation effects,” j. Air poll.cont. Assoc. , 19(5):331-336, 1969.

5.hobson l, knochel l, byington c .bottled, filtered, and tap use in latino and non-latino children. Arch pediatr adolesc med. 2007;161(5):457—.

6.Jones s, burt b, petersen p, lennon m. The effective use of fluorides in public health. Bull world health organ. 2005;83(9):670—.

7.Lamberg m, hausen h, vartiainen t. Symptoms experienced during periods of actual and supposed water fluoridation. Community dent oral epidemiol.1997;25(4):291—.

8.leblanc, f., g. Comeau, and d.n. rao, ”fluoride injury symptoms in epiphytic lichens and mosses,” can. J. Bot., 49:1691-1698, 1971.

9.Mcnally m, downie j. The ethics of water fluoridation. J can dent assoc.2000;66(11):592—.

10.nash, t.h. iii, ”lichen sensitivity to hydrogen fluoride,” bulletin torrey botanical club, 98:103-106, 1971.

11.National health and medical research council (australia). A systematic review of the afficacy and safety of fluridation 2007;9(2):39—.

12.parnell c, whelton h, o’mullane d. Water fluoridation. Eur arch paediatrdent. 2009;10(3):141—.

13.Petersen e, lennon m. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in 21st century :the who approach community dent oral epidemiol. 2004;32(5):319—.

14.Pizzo g, piscopo mr, pizzo i, giuliana g. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review. Clin oral investig. 2007;11(3):189—.

15.Ripa l. A half centuru of community water fluoridation in the united states: review and commentary. J public health dent. 1993;53(1):17.

PDF
Share:
0 comments on DETERMINATION OF FLUORIDE CONTENT IN DIFFERENT GROUND WATER

Post a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *